Stage 1

Parties envisage the type of society that they wish to see, devise policies to create that society based on evidence and argue the case even when unpopular.

Stage 2

Parties sacrifice aspects of their vision to create a more popular programme ditching unpopular policies.

Stage 3


Parties reduce their policy programmes to slogans which at least pay lip service to their original vision.

Stage 4

Parties reduce their policy slogans to meaningless platitudes about ‘fairness’ etc.

Stage 5

Parties make up any shit however inaccurate or offensive if they think it will help them win.